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Thursday, April 16, 2020 | History

2 edition of Aluminum and sodium minerals from oil shale found in the catalog.

Aluminum and sodium minerals from oil shale

Paul F. Rothberg

Aluminum and sodium minerals from oil shale

technical, environmental, economic, legislative, and policy aspects of an undeveloped minerals source : report

by Paul F. Rothberg

  • 32 Want to read
  • 31 Currently reading

Published by U.S. Govt. Print. Off. in Washington .
Written in English

    Places:
  • United States.
    • Subjects:
    • Oil-shales -- United States.,
    • Aluminum.,
    • Sodium.

    • Edition Notes

      Statementprepared for the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives ; by Paul F. Rothberg, analyst, science and technology, Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
      ContributionsUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Subcommittee on Mines and Mining., Library of Congress. Science Policy Research Division.
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsTN859.U5 R67
      The Physical Object
      Paginationiii, 55 p. :
      Number of Pages55
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL5167265M
      LC Control Number74602363

      this is a highly complicated process that is primarily used to produce emeralds and certain non-gemstone minerals. in this process a supply of nutrient material fills the bottom of a high pressure vessel. the vessel is heated to create two temperature zones. the temperature difference causes the melted solution to circulate rising toward the seed crystals, where it hardens and forms larger.


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Aluminum and sodium minerals from oil shale by Paul F. Rothberg Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Aluminum and sodium minerals from oil shale: technical, environmental, economic, legislative, and policy aspects of an undeveloped minerals source: report. [Paul F Rothberg; United States.

Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Subcommittee on Mines and Mining.; Library of Congress. Science Policy Research Division.]. The oil shale, Aluminum and sodium minerals from oil shale book new type fuel with rich reserve in Xinjiang Provence, has been adopted as an additive of Zhundong coal during co-combustion, which is flammable sedimentary rock rich in silicon and aluminum elements.

32 Those two elements are beneficial components for coal ash, which have an inhibitory effect on sodium volatility of Zhundong coal and change the path of sodium transformation during co.

The detrital material in oil shales is composed principally of quartz, feldspars, certain clay minerals, and volcanic debris (the percentage of each constituent in the oil shale being a function of the source area, mode of transport, and distance transported).Cited by: 5.

An improved, new and novel method of recovery of oil and aluminum-containing compounds from subterranean oil shale formations, by treating such formations with alternating slugs of a pyrolytically extractive fluid and an aqueous alkaline fluid containing an acid-insoluble chelating agent and recovering oil and aluminum compounds from said extractive by: Investigation of mineral composition of oil shale Article in Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering 4(5) September with 50 Reads How we measure 'reads'.

bicarbonate), and dawsonite (sodium aluminum-carbonte) are associated with oil shale in northwest Colorado. Identified resources of 32 billion tons of nahcolite and 19 billion tons of dawsonite (equivalent to 27 billion tons of sodium carbonate resources) are available as a byproduct of oil shale processing.

Alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM), especially sodium, make a great contribution to the formation of fine particulates during coal combustion. Extraction and loading through chemical methods have been widely used for coal pretreatment to change the occurrence and content of sodium but could not load intrinsic minerals.

In this study, synthetic char was used as a mineral carrier to study Cited by: 3. When mineral matter is present, however, oxygen must usually be determined by difference, and calculation of ash-free analyses requires an KEROGEN - ISOLATION FROM OIL SHALE accurate knowledge of the minerals present and their reactions under ashing by: minerals are composed of aluminum silicate or a combination of iron and magnesium silicate, some also contain alkaline earth [15].

The upper limit of the particle size of clays is defined by geologists differently: Wentworth [16]. This report is one of three which presents the results of studies entailing preliminary design, costing, and financial evaluation of hypothetical industry-scale complexes for mining and processing of oil shale and/or associated sodium minerals occurring in a certain area of the Piceance Creek basin, Colo.

Option II of the 3-part study is concerned with an integrated operation involving a so-called ''white nahcolite bed. This study focuses on two locations (Harrana Basin― Area-1 and Azraq Basin―Area-2) based on the concessional blocks explored by Jordan Oil Shale Company (JOSCO) for oil shale deposits.

Area-1 is located about 35 km southeast of Amman City covering an area of Km 2, whereas, Area-2 is located km east-southeast of Amman covering Cited by: 1. Smelting: Intwo year-old scientists on opposite sides of the Atlantic, Charles Hall of the USA and Paul L.T.

Heroult of France, made the same discovery – molten cryolite (a sodium aluminum fluoride mineral) could be used to dissolve alumina and the resulting chemical reaction would produce metallic aluminum.

Oil shale, any sedimentary rock containing various amounts of solid organic material that yields petroleum products, along with a variety of solid by-products, when subjected to pyrolysis—a treatment that consists of heating the rock to above °C (about °F) in the absence of oxygen.

The liquid oil extracted from oil shale, once it is upgraded, creates a type of synthetic crude oil. Safflower oil: Sawdust: NA: Shale: Silica: Silicic acid, aluminum sodium salt: Silicic acid, calcium salt: Soap: NA: Soapstone: Sodium aluminum silicate: Sodium bisulfate: Sodium chloride: Sodium hydroxide: White mineral oil.

The Piceance Basin is the smallest of the three principal basins of the Green River Formation in terms of area covered and contains the highest concentration of high-grade oil shale (capable of generating at least 25 gallons of oil per ton of rock), with approximately billion barrels of in-place oil resource.

middle of oil-shale zone R-2 upward to a well-defined dissolution surface in oil-shale zones R-5 and L-5 (pl. In the core holes studied, the lower un1eached part of the saline facies ranges in thickness from m in core hole C to a maximum estimated thickness of 32R m in core hole C Thus, many pyrophoric solids are sold as solutions, or dispersions in mineral oil or lighter hydrocarbon solvents.

Mildly pyrophoric solids (such as lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (lithium aluminium hydride) and sodium hydride) can be handled in the air for brief periods of time, but the containers must be flushed with inert gas before storage. Mineral Resources of Pakistan-an update Muhammad Sadiq Malkani 1*, Muhammad Imran A lyani 2, Mureed Hussain Khosa 3, Sonia Tariq 3, Faisal Saeed 3, Gulawar Khan 4 and Jalal Fai z 4.

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock, composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility.

It is the most common sedimentary rock. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Kerogen is a part of rock that breaks down and releases hydrocarbons when heated.

Hydrocarbons are substances made entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Petroleum and natural gas are probably the most familiar hydrocarbons.

The hydrocarbons in oil shale can be used as an alternative to petroleum or natural gas. COAL, OIL SHALE, NATURAL BITUMEN, HEAVY OIL AND PEAT – Vol. II - Mining of Oil Shale - Ingo Valgma and Jialin L. Qian ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) About 85% of oil shale mined is used for burning in oil shale power stations; 12% for retorting for obtaining shale oil; about 3% for cement factories.

cations between unit layers in a clay mineral is higher than that in the surround-ing water, water is osmotically drawn between the unit layers and the c-spacing is increased. Osmotic swelling results in larger overall volume increases than surface hydration, but only a few clays, like sodium montmorillonite, swell in this manner (Patel et al File Size: KB.

The char and iron sulfides in retorted oil shale were oxidized at temperatures from to /sup 0/C. At temperatures above approximately /sup 0/C, sulfur was retained by the shale as water-soluble sulfates, whereas oxidation at temperatures between and /sup 0/C resulted in a loss of as much as 22% of the sulfur as SO/sub 2/.

It can then be dislodged from the slag and stored under mineral oil. The sodium may additionally be cleaned by heating until molten under mineral to.

In the western part of the Uinta Basin, some saline minerals are associated with the oil shale; however, not much is known about association or mineral distribution. Oil shale in the middle of the Green River Formation in the Green River Basin, Wyoming, is interbedded with thick beds of trona, a sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate salt.

Identifying Minerals Identifying minerals- minerals can be identified by their physical and chemical properties. Color: a. Some minerals have only one color: (1) Malachite- green (2) Sulfur- yellow B.

Other minerals have many colors: (1) Quartz- clear, pink, purple, white, brown (2) Hematite- black, grey, reddish brown, dark red. Also In addition regulation under Mineral Lands and Mining Title 30 U.S.C.

that may pertain include, Mineral Lands and Regulations in General (Ch.2, Sec); Lands Containing Coal, Oil, Gas, Salts, Asphaltic Materials, Sodium, Sulphur, and Building Stone (Ch.3, Sec); Lease of Oil and Gas Deposits in or Under Railroads and Other Rights-of-Way.

Semicoke of oil shale was prepared retorting oil shale at [degrees]C in vacuum. Compared with the original oil shale, its composition and structure have changed (Figs. 2 and 3). The structure of the semicoke is similar to that of some other kaolinites. The impurities of iron and aluminium exist in oil shale in the form of kaolinite.

The oil pyrolysis takes place in the heating section. To minimize solubility of aluminium compounds in the oil shale, the heat control is a crucial factor. Necessary heat for pyrolysis is generated in the carbon recovery section by combustion of carbon residue (char or semi-coke) remained in the spent oil ock: oil shale.

A group of rock-forming, hydrous aluminum silicate minerals that are platy in structure and can form by the alteration of silicate minerals like feldspar and amphibole. Common examples include chlorite, illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite and clays, such as montmorillonite, have the tendency to swell when exposed to water, creating a potential drilling hazard when clay-bearing.

FInOrIC, etymologically derived from our business line of Fine Inorganic, Organic and Industrial Chemicals, offers chemicals and services for Oil & Gas Exploration and Food, Feed, Nutraceutical & Pharmaceutical manufacturers across the United States.

Finoric owns and operates chemical manufacturing facilities in Pleasanton, TX; Midland, TX. It is a black residue generated when oil shale is retorted (vaporized and distilled) to produce an organic oil-bearing substance called kerogen.

Spent oil shale can range in size from very fine particles, smaller than mm (No. sieve), to large chunks, up to mm (9 in) or more in diameter. The coarse spent oil shale resembles waste. Colloidal minerals is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for use. The content of these products varies, depending on the source of the clay.

Some products might contain metals such as aluminum, arsenic, lead, barium. There are multiple sources for the sodium found in your diesel engine oil. Based on your operational environment and equipment type, you should be able to narrow this down to a smaller list of causes. Potential sources of sodium include coolant, salt water, additives, grease thickener, base stocks, dirt Author: Noria Corporation.

Aluminium acetate is a very soluble compound of aluminium, and behaves like the sulphate in the presence of water, precipiatating the hydroxide. Alums are much more soluble in hot water than in cold, so that crystals are easily grown from a solution that has become supersaturated by g: oil shale.

Zeolite molecular sieves are used in industrial applications since more than 60 years, mainly as highly efficient adsorbents for separation processes in gas or liquid phase. Zeolite molecular sieves may be applied in powder form, preferably in static applications, but to a much larger extent as shaped material in both static and dynamic (flowing media) by: 2.

Oil shale - Oil shale - Environmental issues: The production of oil from shales has a potentially serious impact on the environment. Four specific areas of concern dominate discussion regarding development of the resource: greenhouse gas output, water consumption and pollution, surface disturbance, and socioeconomic effects.

Because oil and gas are produced by heating oil shale and because. Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

It is the world's main source of aluminium and e consists mostly of the aluminium minerals gibbsite (Al(OH) 3), boehmite (γ-AlO(OH)) and diaspore (α-AlO(OH)), mixed with the two iron oxides goethite (FeO(OH)) and haematite (Fe 2 O 3), the aluminium clay mineral kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH)) and small.

Most sandstones contain other minerals such as mica, volcanic rock fragments, calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, and ferrous minerals, as well as the shale and clay described above.

All of these minerals have different density, acoustic, and neutron properties than quartz. Clay minerals are the dominant mineral components of oil shale residue, which do not react with acid and alkali due to the lack of chemical activity, but they can be converted into active compounds by calcinating, the active compounds react with NaOH solution at a certain temperature and Si[2] and [2][3] are transformed into.

Gypsum A mineral is defined as a naturally occurring inorganic solid having a specific and characteristic chemical composition and usually possessing a definite crystalline structure. Alabama's mineral diversity relates to the rock types found in the state.

A rock can be made of a single mineral or an aggregate of several minerals, and all rocks belong to one of three groups: igneous.d/gas hydrate, tar sands, oil shale (all of the above) Tar has a lower viscosity than gasoline. b/false. In tar sand, microbes have biodegraded larger molecules, leaving smaller molecules.

iron and aluminum ores b. nonmetallic minerals only d. sodium b. francium and cesium d. potassium. a.Statistics and information on the worldwide supply of, demand for, and flow of minerals and materials essential to the U.S.

economy, the national security, and protection of the environment. Published annually, this Government report contains estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient.